Archive for ‘trends’

March 30, 2015

Number of foreign students in U.S. colleges has nearly doubled since 2005

by Grace

Valued for their tuition dollars and the diversity they offer, foreign students in U.S. colleges have nearly doubled their numbers over the last ten years.

American universities are enrolling unprecedented numbers of foreign students, prompted by the rise of an affluent class in China and generous scholarships offered by oil-rich Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia.

Cash-strapped public universities also are driving the trend, aggressively recruiting students from abroad, especially undergraduates who pay a premium compared with in-state students.

There are 1.13 million foreign students in the U.S., the vast majority in college-degree programs, according to a report to be released Wednesday by the Department of Homeland Security. That represents a 14% increase over last year, nearly 50% more than in 2010 and 85% more than in 2005.

The active recruitment of foreign students raises concerns that they are crowding out opportunities for U.S. students.

“There is a widespread notion that dollars are being spent on foreign students and that they are displacing U.S. students, even if in general that isn’t right,” said John Bound, a University of Michigan economist who has studied the influx.

Foreign tuition money subsidies U.S. students.

Schools need the tuition money.  One way to look at it is that full-pay international students actually help subsidize the education of U.S. students who receive financial aid.

———

Miriam Jordan, “International Students Stream Into U.S. Colleges”, Wall Street Journal,  March 24, 2015.

March 20, 2015

The advantages of two-parent families are not obvious to everyone

by Grace

… universal preschool is not going to make up for an uninvolved parent …

Megan McArdle writes about the importance of the two-parent family, a social institution offering a type of support for children that government cannot seem to match.

Robert Putnam’s “Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis” has touched off a wave of print and digital commentary. The book chronicles a growing divide between the way affluent kids are raised, in two-parent homes whose parents invest heavily in educating their kids, and the very different, very unstable homes in which poorer kids generally grow up.

When the problems of single-parent families are debated, some will “argue that there are lots of good ways to raise kids outside the straitjacket of mid-century, middle-class mores”.

I have been trying to find a more delicate way to phrase this, but I can’t: This is nonsense. The advantages that two people raising their own biological or jointly adopted children have over “nontraditional” family arrangements are too obvious to need enumeration, but apparently mere obviousness is not enough to forestall contrary arguments, so let me enumerate them anyway.

Raising children the way an increasing percentages of Americans are — in loosely attached cohabitation arrangements that break up all too frequently, followed by the formation of new households with new children by different parents — is an enormous financial and emotional drain. Supporting two households rather than one is expensive, and it diverts money that could otherwise be invested in the kids. The parent in the home has no one to help shoulder the load of caring for kids, meaning less investment of time and more emotional strain on the custodial parent. Children will spend less time with their noncustodial parent, especially if that parent has other offspring. Add in conflict between the parents over money and time, and it can infect relationships with the children. As one researcher told me when I wrote an article on the state of modern marriage, you frequently see fathers investing time and money with the kids whose mother they get along with the best, while the other children struggle along on crumbs.

People often argue that extended families can substitute, but of course, two-parent families also have extended families — two of them — so single-parent families remain at a disadvantage, especially because other members of the extended family are often themselves struggling with the challenges of single parenthood. Extended families just can’t substitute for the benefits of a two-parent family. Government can’t, either; universal preschool is not going to make up for an uninvolved parent, or one stretched too thin to give their kids enough time. Government can sand the rough edges off the economic hardship, of course, but even in a social democratic paradise such as Sweden, kids raised in single-parent households do worse than kids raised with both their parents in the home.

The share of American children born to single mothers has grown seven-fold since 1960.

More than 40 percent of American children are now born to unmarried parents, down from just five percent in 1960, according to Pew Research Center. Fifty years ago, the vast majority of adults — 72 percent — were married. The same is true for only about half of adults today. The declines in marriage are especially pronounced in families with lower earnings. Tying the knot is increasingly a marker of class status in America.

———

Megan McArdle, “How Hollywood Can Save Our Families”, Bloomberg, March 17, 2015.

Seth Freed Wessler, “What Happened to the Middle-Class American Family?”, CNBC, March 18, 2015.

March 5, 2015

The higher education downsizing trend hits Sweet Briar College.

by Grace

Sweet Briar College announced Tuesday that it is shutting down at the end of this academic year.

This closure “stunned many in higher education”.

Small colleges close or merge from time to time, more frequently since the economic downturn started in 2008. But the move is unusual in that Sweet Briar still has a meaningful endowment, regional accreditation and some well-respected programs. But college officials said that the trend lines were too unfavorable, and that efforts to consider different strategies didn’t yield any viable options. So the college decided to close now, with some sense of order, rather than drag out the process for several more years, as it could have done.

The future looked bleak for Sweet Briar, consistent with Moody’s dire predictions of a higher education “death spiral” that is considered “particularly acute at small, mid-tier private’ colleges“.

Too far from Starbucks

Sweet Briar officials cited overarching challenges that the college has been unable to handle: the lack of interest from female high school students in attending a women’s college like Sweet Briar, declining interest in liberal arts colleges generally, and eroding interest in attending colleges in rural areas. Sweet Briar is in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Virginia. “We are 30 minutes from a Starbucks,” said James F. Jones Jr., president of the college.

Families have a “declining interest” in paying big bucks for a lower-tier college education.  The annual cost of attending Sweet Briar College was $51,000 in 2013-14.  However, the school’s average discount on tuition had grown to 62%.  That was clearly unsustainable.

Here’s advice from Business Insider:

A college with a $94 million endowment is shutting its doors, and people in higher ed should be scared

ADDED:  Tennessee Temple University is closing

Students have the option to move to Piedmont with assured admittance and continue their education at a discounted price, but the merger effectively means that come May 1, Tennessee Temple University will no longer exist.

———

Scott Jaschik, “Shocking Decision at Sweet Briar”, Inside Higher Ed, March 4, 2015.

February 11, 2015

‘master’s degree is the fastest-growing college credential’

by Grace

Master’s degrees are “as common now as bachelor’s degrees were in the 1960s”.

More than 16 million people in the US — about 8 percent of the population — now have a master’s, a 43 percent increase since 2002.

20150209.COCGrowthOfMasters

 

Forty years ago education was far and away the most popular major for a master’s degree, but today business has taken that spot.

20150209.COC1971PopularMasters  20150209.COC2012PopularMasters

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Are graduate programs exacerbating the student debt problem?

… The typical total debt for a borrower with an undergraduate and graduate degree is now more than $57,000, up from $40,200 in 2004. (This includes medical and law degrees.)

40% of all student debt comes from graduate degree programs,“even though graduate borrowers make up only 17 percent of all borrowers”.

Expanded loan forgiveness programs are “tailor-made for graduate students”.

Students who took out big loans for graduate school and those with higher incomes stand the most to gain financially under President Obama’s expansion of the federal government’s loan forgiveness program.

Lawyers, doctors and other highly trained professionals who utilized federal loans throughout their post-high school education could walk away with most or all of their graduate school debt forgiven by the federal government under the program, say experts.

Graduate students usually get their money’s worth.

… Almost regardless of undergraduate major, a graduate degree boosts earning power even further, according to the Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce.

But does this proliferation of master’s degrees produce wasteful credential inflation?

———

Libby Nelson, “Master’s degrees are as common now as bachelor’s degrees were in the ’60s”, Vox, February 7, 2015.

Susan Ferrecho, “The surprising winners of Obama’s student-loan program”, Washington Examiner, June 12, 2014.

January 29, 2015

School choice is making ‘steady progress’

by Grace

Momentum for school choice has grown in recent years, and “courtroom victories are overwhelming teachers union obstacles”.

January 26-31 is National School Choice Week, and supporters believe there is much to celebrate.

… There are more than 50 such school choice programs — including school vouchers and tax-credit scholarship programs — in 25 states serving more than 300,000 children. Furthermore, about half of these programs were enacted in the past five years, which indicates that momentum for school choice is rapidly accelerating.

300,000 doesn’t actually seem like much, considering there are approximately 56 million K-12 student in this country.

Wealthier families have always had school choice.

School choice is shaking up the public education establishment, but it would be wrong to say that it’s a new, or even radical, idea. After all, if you are the child of middle- or upper-class parents, then it is almost certain that you benefited from school choice. Perhaps your parents chose where to buy a home based on the quality of the local public school. Or perhaps they paid to send you to a private school. In any event, the reason you got a quality education is because your parents were able to afford choices that put you in a school, public or private, that they determined best suited your needs. Your educational fate was not determined solely by the ZIP code into which you were born.

The present battle is being fought mainly for lower-income families, against teachers’ unions and their allies.

… In recent years, they have challenged school-choice programs in Arizona, Indiana and New Hampshire — where they’ve suffered decisive losses — and Alabama, Colorado, Georgia, Florida and North Carolina — where their lawsuits are ongoing, but have suffered big setbacks. (They prevailed in Louisiana, but the state legislature quickly undid their victory.) When more states pass school-choice programs, the unions will no doubt file more lawsuits.

Bert Gall, an Institute for Justice attorney who is at the heart of the battle, is optimistic.

… the unions’ legal onslaught is not a sign of strength, but of desperation. Their lawsuits are often a collection of weak legal claims that are thrown against the wall in the hope that one will stick. While the unions may win the occasional skirmish, they will ultimately lose the legal battle — with the result that school-choice programs will expand to serve more and more families.


Success Academy Bronx 2 scholars perform the School Choice Week Dance.

 

In addition to dancing skills, these student have consistently demonstrated high academic achievement levels.

20150128.COCSuccessAcademy2ProficiencyScores2

ADDED:  Charter schools serve 4% of school-age children in the U.S.

20150129.COCCharterSchoolGrowth1A

———

Bert Gall, “The steady progress of school choice”, Washington Times, January 25, 2015.

January 26, 2015

What is the most valuable inheritance in a knowledge economy?

by Grace

Inheriting money is certainly nice, but intellectual capital may be the most valuable bequest in today’s knowledge economy.

… today’s rich increasingly pass on to their children an asset that cannot be frittered away in a few nights at a casino. It is far more useful than wealth, and invulnerable to inheritance tax. It is brains.

Intellectual capital drives the knowledge economy, so those who have lots of it get a fat slice of the pie. And it is increasingly heritable. Far more than in previous generations, clever, successful men marry clever, successful women. Such “assortative mating” increases inequality by 25%, by one estimate, since two-degree households typically enjoy two large incomes. Power couples conceive bright children and bring them up in stable homes—only 9% of college-educated mothers who give birth each year are unmarried, compared with 61% of high-school dropouts. They stimulate them relentlessly: children of professionals hear 32m more words by the age of four than those of parents on welfare. They move to pricey neighbourhoods with good schools, spend a packet on flute lessons and pull strings to get junior into a top-notch college.

Yes, all this is true.  But how to address the issue of income inequality?  Thankfully, the author agrees the “solution is not to discourage rich people from investing in their children”.  But he does have other ideas.

  • Improve early childcare for poor children.
  • Move primary control of public school funding from local to state level, and tilt it to favor poor students.  Expand school choice.
  • Change college admission so it is based “solely on academic merit”, and force schools to be more transparent about the financial “return that graduates earn on their degrees”.

Even if these recommended reforms could be magically imposed, I question whether much would change.  Head Start doesn’t work in improving long-term outcomes, and I’m skeptical about the chance for reforming such a massive government program.  State funding of public education would be an improvement, but wealthy parents would always find ways to make sure their own children got a better deal.  School choice would at least offer motivated low-income families better options.  I like the idea of academic merit becoming the primary determinant for college admission, but that in itself would do little to mitigate the effects of inadequate K-12 education.

How much impact would increased income redistribution have?  So far, it appears our attempts to address poverty have ‘been a “success at strengthening the social safety net” but a “failure as an engine of self-improvement”’.

There are important reasons to help all Americans develop the ability to create their own financial success.

Loosening the link between birth and success would make America richer—far too much talent is currently wasted. It might also make the nation more cohesive….

Related:

 “87 percent of poor smart kids escape poverty”

Changes in marriage patterns have affected poverty and income inequality

———

“America’s new aristocracy”, The Economist, January 24, 2015.

January 9, 2015

Education issues of 2015

by Grace

Among NPR’s “provocative predictions” for K-12 education in 2015:

Interest in school choice will grow.

I predict that in 2015, recognition will grow for the idea that “public” education means publicly financing K-12 education, but means providing instruction in a wide-variety of settings: charters, private schools, online options and more.

Lindsey Burke
Fellow, Heritage Foundation

Blended learning in public schools is here to stay.

…  Blended learning — coupling technology based-instruction with live instruction — is evolving from an idea that was mostly hype to a daily practice for students in all kinds of public schools.

Andrew Rotherham
Bellwether Education Partners, a nonprofit consultancy

Game-based learning will expand.

… A simple example would be a game like Jeopardy [where teachers can write their own answers and questions] — but a smarter version of that….

Jordan Shapiro
Professor at Temple University and an expert on game-based learning

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is back, and The Daily Caller has some predictions.

The law, passed with bipartisan support in 2001, is now almost universally seen as broken thanks to mandating standards, such as universal proficiency in math and reading, that have proven impossible to reach. Dissatisfaction is so high that Arne Duncan’s Education Department has virtually suspended much of the law by handing out legally dubious waivers from its tougher requirements.

In 2015, however, there are promising signs that the partisan gridlock that prevented any update to the law may finally be breaking down. Sen. Lamar Alexander, who will be taking over the Senate’s education committee, has declared an NCLB update his top priority, and he wants to attack the issue fast, potentially having a bill up for debate before the end of January.

The most obvious change Alexander could pursue against NCLB is the scaling back or elimination of the “adequate yearly progress” requirement, which severely sanctions schools that aren’t quickly progressing towards universal proficiency. …

Another change Alexander could pursue is a major reform to NCLB’s oft-criticized standardized testing requirements. …  If they do, they’ll face initial opposition from President Obama, who has defended annual testing as an essential accountability measure. Even if Obama is opposed, though, Republicans will have an unlikely ally in strongly-Democratic teachers unions such as the American Federation of Teachers, which have loudly called for testing requirements to be changed.

From the right, Alexander will be pressured to take things further, and reform NCLB in order to substantially reduce the federal government’s role and influence over public education (some have proposed letting states opt out of federal control entirely)….

Cynicism compels me to agree with this prediction that we’ll see more of the same tired rhetoric, but not much improvement.

I suspect that with the rumored reauthorization of ESEA that we will see an anti-testing narrative, but the entire system will still be tied to testing. [Politicians] will talk about teacher quality, but we will see a renewed emphasis on sending the least qualified candidates (such as Teach For America) to teach primarily poor children. They will talk about local control and will tweak accountability formulas, but the educational system will likely still be controlled in a top-down fashion instead of a bottom-up approach like California recently introduced for school finance. They will talk about turning around 1,000 schools, when in fact very few of the schools stay “turned around” because the poverty in the communities and special learning needs of the students are not being addressed. In essence, our politicians will give us more of the same failed education policy in 2015, while calling it a new direction and/or reform.

Julian Vasquez Heilig
Professor of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, California State University, Sacramento

———

“Kindergarten Entry Tests And More Education Predictions for 2015″, NPR, January 3, 2015.

Blake Neff, “These Will Be The Five Biggest Education Issues Of 2015″, Daily Caller, January 1, 2015.

January 8, 2015

Testing out of classes can save money and time in getting your college degree

by Grace

Is this how most college degrees will be earned in the future?

… Emina Dedic of HackCollege used standardized tests to save a ton of money and get two degrees a year earlier than she would’ve otherwise.

After several years of going the traditional college route, Dedic found herself struggling financially.  In her research for options she “stumbled upon the concept of testing out of a degree”.

In the beginning, I was skeptical. I hadn’t heard of anyone in my day to day life who had used this method. I thought it was too good to be true, but after further investigation, I quickly realized this was a legitimate way to get college credit and speed up the graduation process.

I managed to take over 30 tests, for three college credits per class, each test costing me about 129 after administrative fees. Using the test-out method, I was able to obtain my AS in General Studies and BS in Psychology within the span of a year.

At the end of the day, I paid about one semester’s worth of tuition in order to obtain both degrees. The savings were extraordinary!…

She mainly used DSST (DANTES Subject Standardized Tests) and CLEP (College Level Examination Program) exams to earn enough credits to get her degree in psychology from Charter Oak State College in New Britain, Connecticut.  This non-traditional school offering online courses is not prestigious by any stretch of the imagination, but their alumni page shows that graduates have gone on to get advanced degrees from institutions like Harvard and Quinnipiac University.

A pragmatic approach

Dedic appears to be an ambitious person whose next move is teaching English overseas.  While her career path may take twists and turns instead of leading directly to a secure, well-paying job, that is also true for many graduates of traditional colleges who paid much more for their degrees.  And whether it’s AP or CLEP, most colleges allow students to save time and money by testing out of some courses.  Considering the limited amount of learning that goes on at college these days, this emphasis on credentialing may realistically be the best option for many students.

———

Tori Reid, “Ask Your Advisor How to Test Out of Classes and Get Your Degree Early”, Lifehacker, 12/31/14.

Emina Dedic, “How to Test Out and Get Your Degree Early”, HackCollege, 12/23/14.

December 15, 2014

The decline in college enrollment continues

by Grace

College Enrollments Drop for 3rd Straight Year

Here’s a related trend.

Trend of sharp growth in high school graduates is ending.

20130730.COCDecliningHSGraduates2

The declining number of high school graduates coupled with a (possibly) recovering economy and soaring tuition point to falling college enrollment.

Related:  ‘Budget woes are particularly acute at small, mid-tier private’ colleges

November 27, 2014

Poor economy and technology are causing millennials to drive less

by Grace

Although Thanksgiving auto travel this year is expected to be the heaviest since 2007, overall, driving is on a downward trend.

This chart shows that per-capita vehicle miles peaked in 2007, and the correlation of vehicle travel with economic growth is weakening.

Trends in Per-Capita Vehicle-Miles Traveled and Real Gross Domestic Product

20141124.COCDrivingTrendsDown2

For decades, economic growth and vehicle travel were closely correlated. Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, economic growth and vehicle travel have diverged, suggesting a weakening link between the state of the economy and the number of miles Americans drive.

Millenials are driving less.

No age group has experienced a greater change in its driving habits than young Americans.

According to the National Household Travel Survey, from 2001 and 2009, the annual number of vehicle-miles traveled by 16 to 34 year-olds (a group that included a mix of Millennials and younger members of Generation X) decreased from 10,300 miles to 7,900 miles per capita—a drop of 23 percent…

The percentage of young people with a driver’s license has been dropping for years. In 2011, the percentage of 16 to 24 year-olds with driver’s licenses dipped to 67 percent—the lowest percentage since at least 1963.

Percentage of 16 to 24-Year-Olds with Driver’s Licenses

20141124.COCMillDriversLicenseTrendsDown2

Technology has affected driving habits.

The recent recession no doubt reduced the number of miles young Americans drove, but the economy is clearly not the only factor at play. Members of the Millennial generation have expressed a greater willingness to pursue less auto-oriented lifestyles than previous generations, and have been the first to grow up with access to the mobile Internet-connected technologies that are reshaping society and how people connect with one another. These changes could be playing a role in the dramatic reduction in driving among young Americans.

Drive safely this Thanksgiving weekend.

———

Tony Dutzik, Frontier Group, Phineas Baxandall, U.S. PIRG Education Fund, A New Direction Our Changing Relationship with Driving and the Implications for America’s Future, Spring 2013.

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