By teaching them “facts”, schools can make a difference in helping bring kids out of poverty.
Facts, background knowledge, and content knowledge are all education-related terms that can be used interchangeably, and can be defined this way:
… the facts, concepts, theories, and principles that are taught and learned, rather than to related skills—such as reading, writing, or researching—that students also learn in academic courses.
When it comes down to it, E.D. Hirsch would argue that it’s mostly facts that end up separating rich kids from poor kids.
He says its facts like the meaning of “common denominator” or understanding what an “ombudsman” does or knowing who Geronimo was that offer many middle- and upper-class students—who learned the terms at home and in their community—a clear advantage in life, while their poorer peers often miss out on absorbing this basic cultural knowledge.
“Facts are what you need to read properly, and to learn more, and to communicate,” says Hirsch, author, founder of the Core Knowledge Foundation and professor emeritus of education and humanities at the University of Virginia.
In 1987, Hirsch wrote the book on teaching facts: Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. It was hailed as innovative, but also criticized as being “elitist, Eurocentric and focused too heavily on rote memorization”.
Now, at 86, he’s seeing the teaching philosophies he’s championed for nearly 30 years becoming a basis for curriculum changes in schools across America.
Common Core Standards
The standards don’t dictate specifically what facts kids learn, but they do guide what students should generally be able to do in math and language arts, such as “establish a base of knowledge across a wide range of subject matter by engaging with works of quality and substance.”
Reading comprehension is dependent on background knowledge.
“There’s an enormous amount of data showing that background knowledge is absolutely vital to reading comprehension,” says Dan Willingham, a U.Va. psychology professor who says Hirsch’s concepts fall in line with current research on how the human brain learns. “Your understanding of text is dependent on what you already know about it.”
The new standards are promising, but success depends on proper implementation.
As for how Common Core standards might change what students learn in schools, Hirsch says he’ll reserve any enthusiasm for when he sees how the standards are put into place.