Posts tagged ‘dropping out of college’

November 3, 2014

Reduce college dropout rates by only admitting qualified students

by Grace

One way to lower the college dropout rate is by providing extensive remediation and financial aid to students who struggle to stay in college.   Another way is by restricting admission and financial aid to students who are prepared to handle the course work.  Richard Vedder thinks the second option makes more sense.

College dropouts pay a heavy price, in both financial and opportunity costs.

There are two fundamentally different approaches to dealing with the problem. One says “let’s remove some of the problems that afflict today’s dropouts.” In particular, let us remove some of the educational and economic barriers that might enhance dropping out. Let’s give more financial aid to the low income student, for example, or more and better remedial education. In other words, let us spend money trying to alleviate some causes of dropping out.

The second approach is almost the opposite. Let us not accept into four year colleges students whose record suggest would have a very low probability of success. For example, students in, say, the bottom half of their high school graduating classes typically have a very low probability of graduating successfully in a reasonable time frame (four or five years) from college. Students with very low SAT (say a composite on the verbal and analytical sections of below 900) or ACT (say 18 or less) scores should not be admitted to four year schools. Indeed, it should be possible to devise a “probability of college success” index based on a combination of three factors: quality of the high school attended, high school rank, and scores on college admissions test.

Those failing to meet the admissions thresholds should be allowed to attend community colleges or non-degree schools offering certificated vocational training and, if they succeed there, be allowed to proceed to four year schools. This approach should not only reduce the dropout rate, it should save a good deal of money, both for students and taxpayers. It should reduce student loan repayment problems a bit, and lower loan delinquency rates.

Above all, a more restrictive admissions approach would in the long run reduce the mismatch between the availability of relatively high paying jobs and the numbers of college graduates seeking those jobs. We have too many college graduates, not too few.

Vedder argues this solution is not “anti-minority”.

The 1 DuPont Circle crowd (the higher education establishment’s lobbyists) would fight such a proposal tooth and nail. They would argue that it is anti-access, anti-minority. I would argue it would be a proposal for successful access and align student expectations more closely with potential outcomes. It would reduce enrollments and revenues for the colleges, forcing some needed creative destruction upon higher education.

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Richard Vedder, ‘The Dalit of American Higher Education: The Social “Untouchables”‘, Forbes, 10/16/2014.

October 15, 2014

Before starting college, consider your chances of actually getting a degree

by Grace

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A dual penalty for dropping out of college

Those students may find themselves doubly damned: cut out of consideration for professional-track jobs, and starting their careers years behind their peers who entered the workforce with just high-school diplomas. Many have student loans to boot.

September 30, 2014

Low-income students face ‘unseen’ barriers to graduating from college

by Grace

Poor academic preparation may be a big challenge for poor students who struggle in college, but another important barrier is social isolation and alienation”.

The effort to increase the number of low-income students who graduate from four-year colleges, especially elite colleges, has recently been front-page news. But when I think about my students, and my own story, I wonder whether the barriers, seen and unseen, have changed at all.

In spite of our collective belief that education is the engine for climbing the socioeconomic ladder — the heart of the “American dream” myth — colleges now are more divided by wealth than ever. When lower-income students start college, they often struggle to finish for many reasons, but social isolation and alienation can be big factors. In “Rewarding Strivers: Helping Low-Income Students Succeed in College,” Anthony P. Carnevale and Jeff Strohl analyzed federal data collected by Michael Bastedo and Ozan Jaquette of the University of Michigan School of Education; they found that at the 193 most selective colleges, only 14 percent of students were from the bottom 50 percent of Americans in terms of socioeconomic status. Just 5 percent of students were from the lowest quartile.

It’s often a struggle for poor students just to gain admission to college, but once on campus their background can create another challenge to graduation.

But once those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds arrive on campus, it’s often the subtler things, the signifiers of who they are and where they come from, that cause the most trouble, challenging their very identity, comfort and right to be on that campus. The more elite the school, the wider that gap. I remember struggling with references to things I’d never heard of, from Homer to the Social Register. I couldn’t read The New York Times — not because the words were too hard, but because I didn’t have enough knowledge of the world to follow the articles. Hardest was the awareness that my own experiences were not only undervalued but often mocked, used to indicate when someone was stupid or low-class: No one at Barnard ate Velveeta or had ever butchered a deer.

Urban students face different slights but ones with a more dangerous edge. One former student was told by multiple people in his small Pennsylvania college town not to wear a hoodie at night, because it made him look “sketchy.” Standing out like that — being himself — could put him at risk.

A related factor is the alienation from their families, who may not be fully supportive of the distance and growth these students have chosen.  One low-inocme, first-generation University of Chicago student wrote poignantly about the social isolation that almost derailed her graduation.  Affordability is only part of the problem.

… My scholarship opened the doors for me, but it didn’t see me through my four years here.

Adult mentors can help, and the Posse Foundation goes a step further by creating a supportive peer group.

How Did Posse Get Its Name? In 1989, Posse Founder and President Deborah Bial was working with talented urban young people. She watched these students go off to college, only to see them return within a semester having dropped out. Knowing that these students were bright and capable, she couldn’t understand what was making them leave college. When she asked them what happened, one student replied, “If I only had my posse with me, I never would have dropped out.” That simple idea, of sending a group—or posse—of students together so they could “back each other up,” became the impetus for a program that today has sent hundreds of students to top colleges and universities throughout the United States.

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Vicki Maddensept, “Why Poor Students Struggle”, New York Times, September 21, 2014.

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